We have learned that Earth is the ideal habitable planet of the solar system discovered in space so far. Surrounding the earth’s surface are the elements of air necessary for the life of living things. Air Pollution is what we call the atmosphere. The elements of the atmosphere are divided into several layers. We need to know how much these are needed for the people and other living things on earth.
The atmosphere is one of the things that are essential for life on earth. The cassia that bans the earth is called the atmosphere. The color of the atmosphere has nothing to do with the size of the odor. So it cannot be seen with the naked eye but can be felt. The atmosphere is mainly composed of three types of elements such as different types of gas water vapor dust.
Although the atmosphere is a combination of different types of gases and vapors, its two main components are oxygen and nitrogen. The two gases together occupy 98.63 percent of the atmosphere. The living world receives and releases oxygen and carbon dioxide from each other. Ozone gas protects the living world by absorbing the purple rays from the sun.
But as a result of current urbanization, this air is constantly being polluted. Which is a very frightening thing for our future. To create a constant amount of carbon dioxide in our air. Which is harmful to the living world.
Causes of air pollution
A major cause of air pollution is population growth. As a result of population growth, our agricultural land is being wasted. People are constantly cutting down a lot of trees to meet their needs. Which is risky for the environment. We know that the plant receives oxides from the house due to its food preparation and releases oxygen. But people are currently cutting down a lot of trees to meet their needs. As a result, the amount of duck sites in the air is increasing and the amount of oxygen is decreasing.
Large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, metallic particles, fumes, etc. emitted from industrial plants pollute the air. Vehicles – Combustion of fossil fuels (petrol and diesel) in different vehicles emits various harmful gases.
Edit air pollution
Air pollution is caused by the mixing of harmful substances in the air. Air pollution damages health, the environment, and resources. As a result, the ozone layer in the atmosphere becomes thinner. It has an impact on climate and also causes global climate change.
Industry, vehicles, population growth, and urbanization are some of the major causes of air pollution. Air pollution occurs for a variety of reasons, many of which are beyond human control. Smoke from desert storms and forest or grass fires causes chemical and dust pollution in the air.
Below are the names and sources of some major air pollutants.
Carbon monoxide (CO)
This colorless, odorless gas is produced when a variety of carbon-containing fuels, including petrol, diesel, and wood, are half-burned. This gas comes out even when cigarettes are burned. This gas reduces the amount of oxygen in our blood. In response to this gas, our reflexes are damaged and we feel drowsy all the time. You also have to be a victim of indecision in various matters.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The main greenhouse gas emitted as a result of various human activities. Coal, oil, and natural gas are released as a result of burning.
This gas is mainly emitted from refrigerators and air conditioning machines. After this gas is released into the air, it moves to the stratosphere, where it comes in contact with other gases. This causes the ozone layer to become thinner. The normal function of the sun is to protect from the harmful rays of the sun.
This substance is found in products like lead batteries, petrol, diesel, hair dye, paint, etc. Lead often harms children. It affects the digestive system and the nervous system. In some cases, cancer can also occur.
Ozone is found in the upper layers of the atmosphere. This vital gas layer protects the earth from the sun’s ultraviolet rays. But this gas near the ground is kind of highly toxic. The ozone that is found near the soil is mainly emitted from factories and vehicles. The effects of ozone can cause itching and irritation. The effects of ozone reduce resistance to colds, leading to the risk of pneumonia.
Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
The effect of this gas is to create fog and acid rain. This gas was emitted from burning fuels like petrol, diesel, and coal. The effects of nitrogen oxides can cause colds in children during the winter.
Suspended Particular Matter (SPM)
SPM is the particles of smoke, dust, vapor, and solids that float in the air for a certain period of time. This is one of the main causes of air pollution. Fog is one of the reasons for SPM. If the SPM is high, it isn’t easy to see distant objects. The smallest particles of this type of substance can enter the lungs and damage one of the major organs of the body. It also causes breathing problems.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
This gas is mainly emittes by burning coal in thermal power plants. Industrial processes such as paper production, smelting of metals, etc. This gas is a major cause of acid rain and fog. The effects of sulfur dioxide cause a variety of complex lung diseases.
Effects of air pollution
Air pollution damages health, the environment, and resources. As a result, the ozone layer in the atmosphere becomes thinner. It has an impact on climate and also causes global climate change. Industry, vehicles, population growth, and urbanization are some of the major causes of air pollution.
Air pollution is when the air becomes harmful to humans and other living things as a result of the mixing of unwanted substances in the Earth’s atmosphere. Each of the gases present in the atmosphere contains a certain amount of toxic gases and ultra-fine substances created by human beings other than these gases that mix with the air and pollute the air. This air pollution has a detrimental effect on living species. The harmful effects of air pollution are.
Effects of air pollution on human health
Harmful effects of toxic air pollutant gas – Toxic gases and fine dust in the air affect human respiratory function. When carbon monoxide gas is absorbed by our lungs, it reacts with the hemoglobin in our blood to form carboxyl hemoglobin, resulting in a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin needed to carry oxygen in the human blood. So people who suffer from oxygen deprivation are easily affected.
- Sulfur dioxide is one of the most serious and widespread air pollutants. As the amount of sulfur dioxide decreases, the smooth muscles of the human bronchioles relax, and as the amount or concentration increases, mucus production increases. Respiratory protection cilia also affect this gas.
- As the amount of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere increases, this gas produces some more unwanted elements in the atmosphere, such as sulfuric acid.
- Another air pollutant, ozone, is a type of irritating gas that enters the lungs faster than sulfur dioxide. The presence of very small amounts of ozone can cause respiratory problems, even heart problems, and even bleeding.
- Although nitric acid is an irritating air pollutant, the presence of this gas in the air can lead to inflammation of the lungs and even bleeding if the amount is high.
One of the most common air pollutants in the air is hydrocarbons which cause lung cancer.
Harmful effects of fine airborne particles on human health
Our nostrils block particles larger than 5 microns from entering the respiratory tract, but particles smaller than 5 microns can easily enter our body. Particles smaller than one micron or smaller begin to accumulate in the lungs. The amount of substance that stored in the lungs depends not only on the shape of the aerosol cone but also on how many times a person breathes per minute. Dissolved aerosols is mix with blood from the lungs. Lead particles damage children’s brains and cause berylliosis from beryllium.
When chemical factories is involve in an accident, they emit toxic gases, which enter the body through our breath and cause poisoning. Thus many people lost their lives. An example is the Bhopal gas accident in India. The accident resulted in the release of toxic methyl iso cyanate or mic gas, which killed many people and at present a toxic strain gas emitted from a chemical factory in the Visakhapatnam region, killing several people and making many sick.
Air pollution can affect other animals
Dust floating in the air at some point comes to the plants and grasslands and then begins to accumulate on them. So when the herbivores take them as food, the air pollutants accumulate in the bodies of the herbivores and cause poisoning and gradually enter the carnivores.
As the amount of ozone in the air increases, it affects humans as well as animals, and ozone gas has an inflammatory property, so when it enters animals, it causes discomfort, even bleeding in dogs and rabbits.
Although animals are not directly affected by fluoride in the air, these fluorides enter the animal kingdom through plants, and animals are affected by fluorosis. Since fluorine is a protoplasmic toxin, fluorine causes tooth decay in animals and increases the rate at which excess fluorine enters the animal’s body. In addition, problems such as diarrhea, weight loss, loss of fertility, and decreased milk production are caused by fluoride contamination.
Effects of air pollution on plants
There are three main air pollutants that have become a cause of concern for adverse effects on plants and agricultural crops. These pollutants are sulfur dioxide, fluorine, and fumes.
- Sulfur dioxide enters the leaf through the stomata. It gradually accumulates in the leaves and once the amount of sulfur dioxide increases to a certain limit, the leaf cells become inactive and die, causing the leaves to dry out. When the amount of sulfur is low, the green leaves turn brown or the green color becomes pale. This phenomenon was call chlorosis. Cotton, wheat, barley, and apples are sensitive to sulfur dioxide.
- Increasing the amount of fluoride in the air causes fluoride wounds in plants. If the amount of fluoride in the leaves is around 50 to 200 ppm, such lesions are formed in the leaves.
- The leaves of apples, figs, peaches, and lemons are damaged by airborne fluoride. Another air pollutant, ozone gas, causes wounds on the upper layers of leaves. These lesions easy identified by uniform plaques of white and brown color. These ozone-induced lesions found in grape, citrus, and tobacco plants.
- Light chemical fumes are also harmful to plants because these fumes cause premature maturation of the intermediate chemical plant, which is harmful to the plant.
- Chlorine is three times more toxic than sulfur dioxide. Although the toxicity of ammonia is low, if the amount is more than 40 ppm, it damages the tomatoes.
Effects of air pollution on objects
Air pollution also affects human resources and objects. Among gaseous pollutants, sulfur dioxide causes the most damage to metallic objects. Sulfur dioxide reacts with metallic air and water to form sulfuric and sulfuric acid, which are easily degraded. Aluminum, copper, and iron steel begin to corrode when exposed to air. Hydrogen sulfide reacts with lead to form brown and black pigments. Sulfur oxides react with limestone to form calcium sulfate, which dissolves easily with rainwater and decays.
Effects of air pollution on the atmosphere
As the amount of carbon dioxide in the air increases, the rate of cooling through the radiation of heat from the earth’s atmosphere gradually decreases. Carbon dioxide absorbs that heat and raises the earth’s temperature.
- Lead from car smoke is a dangerous toxin, especially in children, as it damages children’s brains.
- In addition, air pollution causes chronic problems such as lung cancer, bronchitis, asthma and shortness of breath.