in this article, we introduce all the chemistry of some very rich foods. so let’s go for it…..
Chemistry of favorite and nutritious foods Eggs. A very common food. It can be easily cooked and eaten by gossiping. The thing is very simple to look at – but its chemical structure is quite complex. Let’s look at that complex chemical structure.
Let’s start from the outside of the egg. Initially, The shell is made up of calcium carbonate. The same thing is with seashells, chalk, and limestone on our blackboards. The nanoparticles of calcium carbonate form a kind of crystal calcite mineral according to the order of the protein, from which the eggshell is made. Shell but not absolutely flawless. An egg has an average of about 9,000 fine pores. Gas enters and exits the egg through these holes. But it has special significance in cooking, I will come back to that later.
The color of the shell of the egg can be different, as, in the case of chickens, the color of the shell is white or brown, but in the case of other birds, the color of green or blue is different. The eggs of some birds are also seen in different colors. This variation in color is mainly due to pigment (pigment) deposition during eggshell formation in chicken ovaries. Protoporphyrin 9 is a type of pigment. Due to this, the shell is brown in color. These pigments act as precursors of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood. Other pigments, such as oceans, cause the skin to turn blue or green. And the white shell is the absence of pigment molecules.
The white part of the inside of the egg
As soon as the egg is broken, the white part of the egg falls into the eye. This part has several layers. The funny thing is that 90 percent of it is water. The remaining 10 percent is a variety of proteins. Ovalbumin is one of the proteins. Its function is to provide nutrients to the baby growing in the egg and to retain various digestive enzymes. Another is conalbumin or ovotransferrin. This protein forms very strong bonds with iron molecules. They also make sure that there is no bacterial infection inside, and that there is no iron deficiency in the body of the baby growing inside the egg. There is also another protein in the egg white, called neomycin. This protein increases the density of egg whites and maintains internal elasticity.
The egg yolk is made up of several spherical cells. It contains a lot of fatty acids, such as oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic, and very high levels of cholesterol. There are also four vitamins that are dissolved in this fat — Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K.
The color of the egg yolk is determined by two chemical compounds — lutein and xanthine. Both of these compounds are known as xanthophylls and can also be found in carotenoid compounds. They are members of the same family, the beta-carotene that is responsible for the orange color of carrots. The color of the yolk may also change due to the chicken food. For example, if beta-carotene-rich marigold petals are added to chicken feed, the yolk of the egg will be yellow or orange. Capsanthin and capsorubin are responsible for the red color of red pepper. When a hen eats such ripe red chilies, the yolk of its eggs may turn dark orange or red.
Chemistry of favorite and nutritious foods Cooking eggs!
Raw eggs encase long protein molecules individually. Whenever heat is applied, these coiled molecules begin to open. This protein forms a three-dimensional network whenever the protein begins to unravel. In this network again small pockets are created, and water gets stuck in them. As a result, the thing changes from liquid to solid. The reason why the transparent protein of the egg becomes opaque is because of that network of proteins.
Hydrogen sulfide is responsible for the egg-like smell of eggs. This hydrogen sulfide is made mainly from the proteins in the eggs that contain sulfur during egg cooking. The longer an egg is cooked, the more hydrogen sulfide is produced. Older eggs produce more hydrogen sulfide than they do when cooked.
Occasionally there is a green layer around the egg yolk, with hydrogen sulfide also playing a role. This is due to the chemical reaction of the gas with the iron in the egg yolk. Sometimes they can see even if the eggs are cooked for a long time. There is nothing to fear, the level is not harmful to health. This layer is no longer visible after boiling for a long time and then cooled in ice water.
Depending on the age of the egg, peeling the eggs will be easy or difficult. The alkalinity of the egg changes over time. Eggshells have thousands of fine pores. Through these pores, carbon dioxide escapes and increases the pH value of the egg whites. When the pH of the egg is low, the white part sticks firmly to the inside of the eggshell. For this, it is very difficult to peel a brand new egg. The task is easier in the case of old eggs.
This problem can solve by mixing baking soda in the water while boiling new eggs. This increases the alkalinity inside the egg, although the pungent odor of sulfur also increases immediately. When it is boiled again, it is boiling and hardened by mixing salt in water.
Chemistry of favorite and nutritious foods of milk
Milk is a liquid chemical. So there will be chemistry, milk chemistry! It is with this chemistry that it is possible to answer questions about various aspects of milk. This is why the milk thing is white, why not everyone can eat milk or even if eating it is not digest, etc. The picture shows some of the basics of milk formation, but we also know a little bit about the inside. For the sake of convenience, we will discuss only empty cow’s milk. Although the words that I will say, also apply to the milk of almost all other animals.
Milk is very common to see. But at the root of it is actually a complex chemical character. Most of it is water. There are also very small amounts of fats, proteins, minerals, and other compounds. Water and fats do not mix, but in milk, they act as emulsions for a number of reasons. Just as fat contains emulsion in milk, so milk is simply water, so that a variety of proteins float away.
Triglycerides make all the fatty substances in milk. Glycerol acts as the backbone of these triglyceride molecules. Attached are three fatty acid chains. The identities of fatty acid chains may again be different. That means there is no need to be the same. However, the most common fatty acids in milk are palmitic, oleic, stearic, and myristic acids. The amount of these fatty acids in milk depends on what the cow is eating. For example, in the rainy season, cows eat a lot of green grass, at which time their milk contains high levels of oleic acid. This difference in acid levels depends on how strong the fat will be when separated from the milk.
A very small drop of liquid (droplets) of milk is individually only 3 to 4 micrometers wide. Such a drop surrounded various substances. These include proteins, which in turn help the droplets to form emulsions with milk water. The concentration of fat or lubricant is less than that of water, so if a glass of milk is fixed without stirring at all, the fat accumulates on the top of the glass of milk and then this fat can be easily removed or skimmed. It contains skimmed milk or milk without the fat.
Protein is another key ingredient in milk. Due to this protein the color of milk is white. The molecular structure of milk protein is basically quite long and contains small amino acids as building blocks. These small amino acid blocks combine to form a chain-like molecular structure of milk protein. Milk contains hundreds of different types of proteins, but the main protein is casein.
Protein forms a structure in milk called micelles. They re-emerge from small clusters of calcium phosphate. This bunch of calcium phosphate holds the micelles together. There are different types of models of this missile, one model, is quite time-consuming and research work.
The average diameter of these micelles is about 150 nanometers. They are so small that they can be broken by light. This is why a large amount of micelles breaks down in a glass of milk or a gallon of milk due to light exposure, which is why the milk looks white.
Apart from this, other ingredients in milk are mixed in the milk. It contains minerals, vitamins, and lactose. (Some vitamins are again dissolved in fats or fats, they are found in fat droplets or in small drops.
Lactose is a type of sugar that is found only in milk and dairy products. Our body’s enzyme lactose breaks down lactose from milk or dairy products into two smaller sugars and turns them into galactose and glucose. However, some people’s bodies cannot produce enough lactose to break down the lactose in milk or dairy products. These are basically lactose intolerant or lactose-intolerant people. In the digestive system of these people, lactose reaches the colon unchanged. The bacteria there break down lactose to produce gas, creating a very uncomfortable situation.
Bacteria are also responsible for the sour taste of milk. Lactose in milk is converted to lactic acid by bacteria. As a result, the milk becomes sour. This increases the acidity of the milk, resulting in the freezing of the protein in the milk. This is not desirable in the case of ordinary milk. Although cheese is made in this process. Cheese also has some excellent chemical reactions. That story can be told at any other time.
Chemistry of favorite and nutritious foods ice cream
When you hear the word ‘ice cream’ in this intense heat, water comes into your pocket and your mouth is full of saliva. Although it looks very innocuous or very greedy, its chemical composition is quite complex.
There are only three things you can do to make ice cream. Milk, cream, and sugar. Freezing these three things at low temperatures is not good ice cream. Ice cream is a type of emulsion. The emulsion thing is actually a mixture of fats and oils and water. The funny thing is, they don’t mix unless mixed in a special process. In an emulsion, very small particles or droplets of fat or lubricant move around in the water and do not separate. The fact that fat water is not separate is due to the chemical nature of the emulsion molecule.
The fat droplets in ice cream come from the cream. Most of these fats are triglycerides. In addition, there is a small number of other fats. Such as phospholipids and triglycerides (less than 2%). Triglycerides are made up of three types of fatty acid molecules. If the melting point of the fat used in ice cream is high, the fatty acids will give a waxy feeling inside the mouth. Again, if the melting point is low, it will be difficult to maintain the texture of ice cream. Fortunately, the melting point of dairy fat is within the correct range! Dairy fat, palm oil fat, coconut oil fat — their melting point is the same. So it is possible to make excellent ice cream with these.
There are a number of other things that can be done to prevent the water from separating the fat or fat from the ice cream. Milk protein plays a very important role here. When making ice cream, the fat is expelled through a small valve under very high pressure, then the fat is broken down to form droplets. The milk protein then sticks to these droplets, forming a very thin coating. This thin layer of protein prevents the fat droplets from sticking together to form larger droplets. The thin layer of protein in each small droplet prevents another droplet from approaching. Pushes away.
Emulsifiers aside, they also play a very important role in making ice cream. One part of these emulsifiers dissolves in water and the other part dissolves in fat. These emulsifiers then hold fat and water together in their own two parts without creating separate layers.
The role of emulsifier in an ice cream works a little opposite to the name. They are mainly present for the de-emulsification of certain fats or fats. This works by removing some of the thin layers of milk protein that are on the fat droplets. As a result, some of the fat sticks to large lumps and sticks to the ice cream sticks. In addition, de-emulsification of some of the fats in ice cream is required to trap air inside the ice cream.
When ice cream is Made, it is frozen at the same time as the air is blown into it. Air is very important for the combination of fat, protein, and emulsifier. In ice cream where fat and protein are not present, it is very difficult to mix the air. For example, sorbets. Good quality ice cream has less air but more concentration. If there is too much air in the ice cream, it melts faster.
Freezing or chilling ice cream is another important step in making ice. Modern ice cream factories use liquid amine for the required low temperatures. Earlier, salt was mixed with water and its melting point was brought to 21.1 C. After receiving ammonia, its melting point dropped to -30 degrees Celsius. The cold the refrigerator, the faster the ice cream is made.
Ice cream is made inside a barrel with a scraper blade. The ice cream freezes as soon as you touch the barrel. Immediately the scraper blade removes the scraped ice cream from the barrel. After going through this process the ice crystals or crystals mix very well with the ice cream in a very small size. Our demand is for very small pieces of ice so that the ice cream is smooth.
Another key ingredient in ice cream is sugar. In addition to sweetening the ice cream, it lowers the freezing point of the ice cream. Depending on the amount and type of sugar, we can determine how hard or soft the ice cream will be. Sugar also has an effect on the viscosity of liquids that contain fat droplets and air bubbles.
There is also a stabilizer. This also affects the viscosity of the fluid. These stabilizers dissolve in water, their source is the tree, which also has a good role in the formation of ice cream. The most widely used stabilizer, called sodium alginate, is made from brown seaweed. There is also another stabilizer, call carrageenan, but this substance is rare to use due to its high price. The stabilizer makes the surface of the ice cream quite smooth and also increases the melting point.
A very important ingredient in ice cream is its aroma. The perfume can use in ice cream as desired. For example, let’s talk about vanilla flavor. In addition to the natural vanilla flavor, the artificial flavor of vanilla can also be added to ice cream. The same goes for each flavor. Artificial flavors can also be used instead of natural flavors. Ice cream can be made with natural colors, such as anthocyanins.